San Gimignano, Italy
This device has a Spanish name because it was improved in Spain where it became the official instrument of capital punishment and remained in use until 1975, when the last to be executed was a young student later to be found innocent.
This instrument has very ancient origins. It was originally made of a pole driven in the ground and a rope to tie up round the victim's neck.
This sort of torture was used all over the world. The Spanish version was perfected for this instrument to be used for execution. It had an iron collar that had an iron on its rear which penetrated the cervical vertebrae in a way that the convict died both for asphyxiation and because the spinal cord was crushed.